In Factis Pax is a peer-reviewed online journal of peace education and social justice dedicated to the examination of issues central to the formation of a peaceful society - the prevention of violence, political challenges to peace and democratic societies.
Social justice, democracy, and human flourishing are the core factors which highlight the importance of the role of education in building peaceful societies. We invite articles and book reviews on topics related to these central issues.


New Issue of In Factis Pax –Volume 7, Number 2, 2013

Peace In Every Relationship: Building an Interdisciplinary, Holistic Domestic Violence Program on College Campuses
By Laura Finley

Democratizing Global Justice: The World Tribunal on Iraq
By Janet Gerson

Book Review
Candice C. Carter (ed.) Conflict Resolution and Peace Education Transformations across Disciplines, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. ISBN: 978-0-230-62063-6. 237pp.
By Oluwaseun Bamidele


In Factis Pax –Volume 7, Number 1, 2013

Human Responsibility Movement Initiatives: A Comparative Analysis

By Sue L.T. McGregor


This paper shares a comparative analysis of four international initiatives for a declaration of human responsibilities: the InterAction Council, UNESCO/Valencia, the Parliament of the World’s Churches, and the United Nations’ Human Rights Commission (now the Human Rights Council). After discussing five dimensions that architects of these initiatives use to articulate their rationale and proposed elements of declarations for human responsibilities, a chronological overview of each of the four initiatives is shared (a case study), followed by a comparative, thematic analysis of how they are the same and different. This analysis generated six themes pertaining to (a) degree of global coordination and nature of participants, (b) the scope of the initiative, (c) differences in organizational principles, (d) commonalties and differences in what constitutes a collection of human responsibilities, (e) intentions for adoption at the United Nations, and (f) political and legal pushback. The paper concludes that despite being developed independently, there is encouraging congruency of what constitutes human responsibility, intimating eventual movement towards a common declaration.

Reflections on Kenneth E. Boulding’s The Image: Glimpsing the Roots of Peace Education Pedagogy

By Tony Jenkins
Kenneth E. Boulding’s The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society is an overlooked, yet landmark publication for peace research, peace studies, and peace education. Published in 1956, before the widespread recognition of peace knowledge fields as formal academic disciplines, The Image lays out many of the theoretical foundations for the transdisciplinarity that has emerged as the normative disposition for peace scholarship. Leaps and bounds ahead of the prevalent academic discourse, The Image recognized the significant role of education and learning theory in facilitating personal, social and political change. As such, Boulding’s theory of the ”image” provides an early, integrative and critical articulation of a holistic and transformative framework for peace education pedagogy and peace knowledge that should be reintroduced into the canon of peace education scholarship.

Human Rights and Human Rights Education: Beyond the Conventional Approach

By Fuad Al-Daraweesh

This paper is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of human rights based on sociology of knowledge. The conceptualization is grounded on relationalism. The isomorphic equivalents of human rights are a manifestation of the relational approach. This paper argues for grounding human rights dissemination on a relational approach.

Book Reviews

War: The Ultimate Crime Against Humanity
Review of Gwynne Dyer, War: the Lethal Custom (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers,

By Sam R. Snyder

Past Issue
Volume 6, Number 2, 2012
Pages 73-129

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Editorial Essay — The Importance of Philosophy for Education in a Democratic Society
By Dale T. Snauwaert
Vowing to End Injustice: A Buddhist Social Movement’s Narrative Construction of Social Change
By Jeremy A. Rinker
Alternative Dispute Resolution and Niyama, The Second Limb of Yoga Sutra
By Carmen M. Cusack
Book Reviews
A review of The End of War by John Horgan (San Francisco: McSweeney’a Books, 2012)
By Sam R. Snyder
A review of No One’s World: The West, the Rising Rest, and The Coming Global Turn by Charles A. Kupchan. A Council on Foreign Relations Book. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012)
By Sam R. Snyder


Volume 6, Number 1, 2012
Pages 1-72

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Civic Education and Global Citizenship: A Deweyan Perspective
by Moses Chikwe

The Applicability of the Strategic Killing Model to the Case of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire
by Shavkat Kasymov

Designing Teacher Education Programs for Human Rights
by Joshua C. Francis

Culture as the Cause of Conflict. A Case study in west Pokot District, Kenya
by Daniel Nganga

Outsourcing War and Peace
A review of Laura A. Dickinson, Outsourcing War and Peace: Preserving Public Values in a World of Privatized Foreign Affairs. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2011).
by Sam R. Snyder


Volume 5, Number 3, 2011 
Pages 258-388
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Papers from the International Institute on Peace Education 2010, Cartagena, Colombia

Guest Editor: Anita Yudkin-Suliveres, Professor and UNESCO Chair for Peace Education at the University of Puerto Rico

Youth as Actors in Peace and Human Rights Education
By Marloes van Houten and Vera Santner

Unidades Móviles como estrategia para prevenir la violencia y educar para la paz: la experiencia de Antioquia, Colombia
By Juan Carlos Rivillas and Olga Espinosa Henao

Participatory Artistic Quiltmaking for Peacebuilding and Peace Education: Reflections on a Workshop in the International Institute for Peace Education 2010 and on a Research Study
By Roselynn Verwoord

General Articles and Poems

The Pen is Mightier than the Sword
By Andrew Moss

Homage to Gandhi
By Andrew Moss

Maria Montessori: Education for Peace
By Barbara Thayer-Bacon

Contextualizing Peace in Islamic Traditions: Challenging Cultural Hegemony
By Candice Marie Nasir

A Cultural Approach to Peace Education
By Carl Templin and Jing Sun

Consumption in Environmental Education: Developing curriculum that Addresses Cradle to Cradle Principles
By Helen Kopnina

Applying The New Ecological Paradigm Scale in the Case of Environmental Education: Qualitative Analysis of the Ecological Worldview of Dutch Children
By Helen Kopnina


Past Issues

Volume 5, Number 2, 2011
Pages 97-257

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On Wrestling with Alienation and Producing More Progressive Mental Conceptions that Remake our World: Doing Democracy
By Adam Renner, Nancye E. McCrary, and Doug Selwyn

Fostering Social, Emotional, Ethical, Civic and Academic Learning (SEECAL) Through Constructive Controversy: What are the Implications for the Professional Development of High School Teachers?
by Deborah Donahue-Keegan

Perceptions of Citizenship in Preservice Elementary Social Studies Education
by Hilary Harms Logan

The Dialogic Classroom As Pedagogy: Teaching the Civic Mission of Schools
by Andrea M. Hyde

Emotion, Reflection, and Activism: Educating for Peace in and for Democracy
by Eric C. Sheffield, Yolanda Medina, and Jeffrey Cornelius-White

The Search for Balance: Understanding and Implementing Yoga, Peace, and Democratic Education
by Joy L. Wiggins

Teacher Development as Deliberative Democratic Practice: A Precursor to Educating for Democratic Citizenship
by Diane R.Wood, Elizabeth K. DeMulder, and Stacia M. Stribling.

Volume 5, Number 1, 2011
Pages 1-96

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Reflective Pedagogy, Cosmopolitanism, and Critical Peace Education for Political Efficacy: A Discussion of Betty A. Reardon’s Assessment of the Field by Betty A. Reardon and Dale T. Snauwaert

Second Installment of the Special Issue: Skills, Values, and Beliefs for Today’s Democratic Citizenship Learning to Trust Our Teachers by Barbara J. Thayer-Bacon and Scott Ellison

Democratic Citizenship, Critical Multiculturalism, and the Case of Muslims Since September 11 by Liz Jackson

Habitat for Humanity and the Support of Civic Participation by Todd Junkins and Darcia Narvaez

Society’s Response to Environmental Challenges: Citizenship and the Role of Knowledge by Cecilia Lundholm

Volume 4, Number 1, 20
Pages 1-126

Special Issue: Skills, Values, and Beliefs for Today’s Democratic Citizenship: Psychological Competencies
Florian Feucht (Special Issue Editor)

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Florian Feucht: Information seeking, decision making, and action taking in social and political contexts An Introduction to Psychological Aspects of Democratic Citizenship

Lori Olafson: “Good” Americans and “Bad” Americans: Personal Epistemology, Moral Reasoning, and Citizenship.

Claudia Ruitenberg: Conflict, Affect and the Political: On Disagreement as Democratic Capacity.

Michael Weinstock: Epistemic Understanding and Sound Reasoning Skills that Underlie Effective Democratic Engagement.

Gregory Schraw, Lori Olafson, Michelle Vander Veldt, & Jennifer Ponder: Teachers’ Epistemological Stances and Citizenship Education.

Lisa Bendixen(Discussant): Argumentation, Anger, and Action: Citizenship Education In and Out of the Classroom.

Dale Snauwaert (Discussant): Democracy as Public Deliberation and the Psychology of Epistemological World Views and Moral Reasoning: A Philosophical Reflection.


Volume 3, Number 1, 2009

Pages 1-157

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Institute on Peace Education (IIPE) – “Human Rights Learning as Peace Education: 
Pursuing Democracy in a Time of Crisis”
Dale T. Snauwaert (Editor)

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Action Ideas in Educating for Human Rights and Towards a Culture of Peace in Puerto Rico
By Anita Yudkin Suliveres and Anaida Pascual Morán

On The Power(s) of Writing: What Writing Studies Can
Offer to Peace and Human Rights Educators

By Andrew Moss

Human Rights, Popoki and Bare Life
By Ronni Alexander

International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Education:
An Exploration of Differences and Complementarity

By Josefine Scherling

Spiritualiy: An Approach to Freedom and Democracy
By Jalka

Poetry and Peace: Explorations of Language and “Unlanguage” as
Transformative Pedagogy

By Mary Lee Morrison

Broadening Horizons: Is There a Place for Peace Education in the American Legal System and More Specifically in Family Law?
By MiaLisa McFarland

Anti-discrimination Education in Japan: Buraku Sabetsu Simulation
By Daisuke Nojima

Peace Playground
By Éva Blénesi

Doing What We Teach
By Jasmin Nario-Galace

Peace Channel: A channel for human rights education and peace in Nagaland.
By Fr. Rev. C.P. Anto

Book Review Essays

Recasting Classical and Contemporary Philosophies to Ground Peace
Education: A Review Essay of James Page, Peace Education: Exploring Ethical and Philosophical Foundations (Charlotte, NC: Information Age Press, 2008)

By David Ragland

Reclaiming a Democratic Political Community: A Review of Paul Theobald, Education Now: How Rethinking America’s Past Can Change Its Future (Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2009).
By Dale T. Snauwaert


Volume 2, Number 2, 2008

Pages 166-382

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Institute on Peace Education (IIPE) — “Critical Pedagogy: Educating for Justice and Peace.”
Dale T. Snauwaert (Editor)

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The International Institute on Peace Education:
Twenty-six Years Modeling Critical, Participatory Peace Pedagogy

By Tony Jenkins

Persistence of Vision: Hegemony and Counter-hegemony in the Everyday
By Robert E. Bahruth

Hans-Peter Dürr’s Thought as a Source for Peace Work
By Francesco Pistolato

Unity-based Peace Education: A New Approach to Peace Education by Transforming World Views
By Havva Kök

Popoki, What Color is Peace? Exploring critical approaches to thinking, imagining and expressing peace with the cat, Popoki
By Ronni Alexander

Teaching About Peace Through Children’s Literature
By Stan F. Steiner

The UNESCO Schools Cooperation Network Health Education Programme
By Nicoletta Mantziara

Political Pedagogy Vs Coexistance Education: The Case of Israel\Palestine
By Udi Adiv

Painful Past in the Service of Israeli Jewish-Arab Dialogue:
The Work of the Center for Humanistic Education at the Ghetto Fighters House in Israel

By David Netzer

Youth Initiatives in Conflict Zones: Focus Northern Ireland
By Fran Russell Banks

Peace Education in Marginalized Communities in Nigeria: The ‘Protect Our Future’ Project
By Imoh Colins Edozie

Thailand’s Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act B.E. 2551 (2008): A New Development in Human Rights Protection and Justice
By Son Ninsri

Weapons of Mass Destruction: Challenges Towards Nonproliferation in the Middle East
By Nilsu Goren

The Origins of Critical Pedagogy, or the Freirization of Paolo
A poem by Rinah Sheleff


Past Issue

Volume 2, Number 1, 2008


Special Issue on The Earth Charter
Essays on Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine
Book Review of The Encyclopedia of Peace Education

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Special Issue on The Earth Charter

Education for Sustainable Development based on the Earth Charter
By Abelardo Brenes, Ph.D.


This article maintains that the United Nations Decade for Education for Sustainable Development offers a critically needed opportunity for a worldwide educational and cultural movement that can harness the wonderful qualities of humans to meet our challenges and fulfil our evolutionary potential, which if achieved will manifest an integral way of living peacefully, in three fundamental dimensions: persons living peacefully and sustainably as members of the web and community of Cosmos, Earth and Life; with one another as equal members of the human community; and on the personal level, as a self-appreciative and self-directed personal evolutionary unfoldment. The Earth Charter is an international document that is now a core instrument of the United Nations Decade for Education for Sustainable Development. It provides a framework that contributes key elements for an educational philosophy and pedagogy adequate to fulfil these tasks.


The Earth Charter: Peace Education and Values for a Shared World
By Karen Huggins and Kevin Kester


This paper explores the Earth Charter and the interconnectedness of all forms of life, the multiple values and dimensions through which peace is constructed, and the responsibility of today’s generations to preserve and nurture Earth’s living systems for future generations. Violence, apathy, and silent complicity are explored through reflection on the ethics that underscore peace, democracy, justice, and sustainability. One must learn to reconnect respect for non-human life to a re-humanization of the Other and care for succeeding generations. The Earth Charter outlines a framework of planetary ethics and actions for values in a world of understanding, collaboration, and environmental stewardship. During the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), this essay posits the Earth Charter operates as a normative document for integrating values of sustainability into education. The authors present a lesson plan in the final pages of the article as a model for implementing the Earth Charter into curriculum.


The Earth Charter, a Radical Document: A Pedagogical Response.
by Sean Blenkinsop and Chris Beeman


In this paper we argue that because the Earth Charter is a radical document educative responses to it must be similarly radical. Building out of previous work, we offer practitioners six pedagogical tools which, as we argue below, align themselves to the ideas and spirit of the Charter and can act to assist existing educational practices become more ecological in orientation. The obvious premise in this discussion is that the change implied in the Earth Charter requires more than minor tinkering with education and that educators need immediately implementable tools that can begin the process of changing the larger “dominant pattern” (Earth Charter). In summary, this paper will investigate the alignment of the Earth Charter with a series of pedagogical tools thereby offering educators a concrete means to begin the process of radical change.


The Cosmopolitan Ethics of the Earth Charter:
A Framework for a Pedagogy of Peace
By Dale T. Snauwaert


The purpose of this paper is to philosophically explore the Earth Charter as a cosmopolitan ethical framework for a pedagogy of peace. The Earth Charter constitutes a powerful articulation of a framework of cosmopolitan ethical principles for a just, peaceful, and ecologically sustainable society. This paper articulates the cosmopolitan ethics of the Earth Charter and as well as exploring it’s potential as a foundation for a pedagogy of peace. The paper will focus on the definition of peace articulated in Principle 16f of the Charter: “Recognize that peace is the wholeness created by right relationships with oneself, other persons, other cultures, other life, Earth, and the larger whole of which all are a part.” This conception of peace serves as the organizing framework for the articulation of the cosmopolitan ethic and corresponding pedagogical framework. It is argued that the ethical principles of The Earth Charter provide a framework for a corresponding pedagogy of peace as right relationships.


Essays on Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine

A Pedagogy of Alternatives: A Peace Education Comment on Mark Webb’s “Letter to Naomi Klein”
By Betty A. Reardon

A Letter to Naomi Klein
By Mark Porter Webb


Book Review — The Encyclopedia of Peace Education (edited by Monisha Baja)
By Hakim Williams


Archive: Past Issues

Volume 1 Number 2, 2007

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Exploring Our Perceptual Limitation by Lyudmila Bryzzheva


It is easy to hurt others when they stand barely visible. The difficulty of seeing another person clearly is treated here as “perceptual limitation,” and it is partially1 responsible for poor perception of others. Through personal introspection, and anecdotal evidence from teaching practice and daily encounters the author explores this curable while recurrent condition and suggests a number of practical ways of minimizing it.


The Preparation of Pre-Service Teachers for a Culture of Dignity and Peace by Melodie Wilson and Yvette Daniel


This paper argues that since schools are considered spaces for critical transformation and teachers play a vital role in creating conditions where students can become loving, caring members of society, peace education should be made explicit in teacher education. It asserts that the teacher education culture in Ontario is keen and positioned for this endeavour to take place despite implicit and marginalized peace education content and practices. It continues by suggesting how a move to prepare teacher candidates with education for and about peace through the magnifying of current implicit peace practices may strengthen the overall momentum of producing just societies, thereby, building human dignity. Drawing from findings derived from a small-scale study, three implications for teacher education are given: teacher education must recognize the proclivity of teacher candidates for partnership pedagogy; create space for sharing experiences; and expose teacher candidates to peace education knowledge. Six recommendations are provided for increasing possibilities for peaceful and equitable social pathways. The overarching purpose is to stimulate further discussion and networking among Ministry of Education in Ontario and faculties of education by advocating how peace education aligns with the goals inherent in their own philosophies and those of the global peace agenda.


Connecting Inner and Outer Peace: Buddhist Meditation Integrated with Peace Education by Edward J. Brantmeier


This article describes major types of Buddhist meditation and elucidates the connections among Buddhist meditative practices and a missing dimension of contemporary peace education—the cultivation of inner peace. In laying the groundwork for integrating aspects of Buddhist meditation within peace education efforts, definitions of peace education are critiqued. The specific techniques of loving-kindness mediation and emptiness meditation are explored through the eyes of scholars of Buddhism and through the eyes of the author who has been a student of Buddhism for twelve years. Rooting insight into the radical interconnectedness of all life in Hindu and Buddhist religious traditions, the author reiterates the power of this insight in regards to transforming individual dispositions and actions for nonviolent social change. The secularization of Buddhist and other contemplative practices for use in U.S. public schools is problemitized given the history of the separation of church and state in the United States.



Volume 1 Number 1, May, 2007
Special Issue: What is the Relationship Between Knowledge and Peace?

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Editorial Introduction by Fuad Al-Dwareesh

Words Matter: Exposing the Camouflaged Violence of Hunting Rhetoric by Heidi A. Huse, Ph.D

Nonviolence as a Way of Knowing in the Public School Classroom by Anya Jacobson

A Book Review of “Avengers of the New World”
by Monisha Bajaj, Ed.D

A Book Review of “Ethical Visions of Education: Philosophies In Practice” by Dale Snauwaert, Ph.D