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In Factis Pax is a peer-reviewed online journal of peace education and social justice dedicated to the examination of issues central to the formation of a peaceful society - the prevention of violence, political challenges to peace and democratic societies.
Social justice, democracy, and human flourishing are the core factors which highlight the importance of the role of education in building peaceful societies. We invite articles and book reviews on topics related to these central issues.


In Factis Pax –Volume 8, Number 1, 2014

Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Institute on Peace Education 2013, Cátedra UNESCO de Educación para la Paz / UNESCO Chair for Peace Education
Universidad de Puerto Rico / University of Puerto Rico

Special Issue Editors

    • Anita Yudkin
      Anaida Pascual Morán
      Liliana Cotto Morales
      Fuad Al-Daraweesh
  • The current issue of In Factis Pax is comprised of seven articles and one poem that were originally presented at the International Institute on Peace Education (IIPE) 2013 in partnership with the UNESCO Chair for Peace Education at the University of Puerto Rico. The theme of the institute was “Towards a Possible World Free from Violence: 
Pedagogies, Proposals and Politics for Human Rights and Peace.” The institute was bilingual, and in the spirit of bilingualism four of the articles from the institute are published in Spanish.

    The articles include the following:

    Educación en y para los Derechos Humanos y la Paz: Valores, Principios y Prácticas Pedagógicas Medulares
    by Anaida Pascual Morán

    Profesionalizando a Líderes Comunitarios en el Diplomado Nacional en Cultura de Paz
    By Nathalie Carrillo Gómez and Walter Trejo Urquiola

    Interculturalidad y educación: exploración de una paidea para el Sur
    El proyecto: Interculturalidad y culturas de paz con justicia
    By Liliana Cotto Morales

    Diseño, Aplicación y Evaluación del Modelo de Intervención Tutorial en la UAEMEX desde la Perspectiva de la Educación para la Paz
    By Martha Estela Gómez Collado

    Negotiating Competing Ethical Systems in Schools: Restorative Practices for Transforming Violent School Communities
    By Erin Dunlevy

    On The ‘Dia-Tekhnē • Dialogue Through Art’ Methodology
    By Alex Carrascosa

    Reflections on IIPE 2013: Exploring a Possible World Free from Violence
    By Susan Gelber Cannon

    Homology: A Human Rights Poem
    by Anna Verhoye


    In Factis Pax –Volume 7, Number 2, 2013

    Peace In Every Relationship: Building an Interdisciplinary, Holistic Domestic Violence Program on College Campuses
    By Laura Finley

    Democratizing Global Justice: The World Tribunal on Iraq
    By Janet Gerson

    Book Review
    Candice C. Carter (ed.) Conflict Resolution and Peace Education Transformations across Disciplines, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. ISBN: 978-0-230-62063-6. 237pp.
    By Oluwaseun Bamidele

    In Factis Pax –Volume 7, Number 1, 2013

    Human Responsibility Movement Initiatives: A Comparative Analysis

    By Sue L.T. McGregor


    This paper shares a comparative analysis of four international initiatives for a declaration of human responsibilities: the InterAction Council, UNESCO/Valencia, the Parliament of the World’s Churches, and the United Nations’ Human Rights Commission (now the Human Rights Council). After discussing five dimensions that architects of these initiatives use to articulate their rationale and proposed elements of declarations for human responsibilities, a chronological overview of each of the four initiatives is shared (a case study), followed by a comparative, thematic analysis of how they are the same and different. This analysis generated six themes pertaining to (a) degree of global coordination and nature of participants, (b) the scope of the initiative, (c) differences in organizational principles, (d) commonalties and differences in what constitutes a collection of human responsibilities, (e) intentions for adoption at the United Nations, and (f) political and legal pushback. The paper concludes that despite being developed independently, there is encouraging congruency of what constitutes human responsibility, intimating eventual movement towards a common declaration.

    Reflections on Kenneth E. Boulding’s The Image: Glimpsing the Roots of Peace Education Pedagogy

    By Tony Jenkins
    Kenneth E. Boulding’s The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society is an overlooked, yet landmark publication for peace research, peace studies, and peace education. Published in 1956, before the widespread recognition of peace knowledge fields as formal academic disciplines, The Image lays out many of the theoretical foundations for the transdisciplinarity that has emerged as the normative disposition for peace scholarship. Leaps and bounds ahead of the prevalent academic discourse, The Image recognized the significant role of education and learning theory in facilitating personal, social and political change. As such, Boulding’s theory of the ”image” provides an early, integrative and critical articulation of a holistic and transformative framework for peace education pedagogy and peace knowledge that should be reintroduced into the canon of peace education scholarship.

    Human Rights and Human Rights Education: Beyond the Conventional Approach

    By Fuad Al-Daraweesh

    This paper is an effort to transcend the debate of universalism and cultural relativism by offering a new conceptualization of human rights based on sociology of knowledge. The conceptualization is grounded on relationalism. The isomorphic equivalents of human rights are a manifestation of the relational approach. This paper argues for grounding human rights dissemination on a relational approach.

    Book Reviews

    War: The Ultimate Crime Against Humanity
    Review of Gwynne Dyer, War: the Lethal Custom (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers,

    By Sam R. Snyder

    Past Issue
    Volume 6, Number 2, 2012
    Pages 73-129

    Download individual Files:

    Editorial Essay — The Importance of Philosophy for Education in a Democratic Society
    By Dale T. Snauwaert
    Vowing to End Injustice: A Buddhist Social Movement’s Narrative Construction of Social Change
    By Jeremy A. Rinker
    Alternative Dispute Resolution and Niyama, The Second Limb of Yoga Sutra
    By Carmen M. Cusack
    Book Reviews
    A review of The End of War by John Horgan (San Francisco: McSweeney’a Books, 2012)
    By Sam R. Snyder
    A review of No One’s World: The West, the Rising Rest, and The Coming Global Turn by Charles A. Kupchan. A Council on Foreign Relations Book. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012)
    By Sam R. Snyder


    Volume 6, Number 1, 2012
    Pages 1-72

    Download individual Files:

    Civic Education and Global Citizenship: A Deweyan Perspective
    by Moses Chikwe

    The Applicability of the Strategic Killing Model to the Case of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire
    by Shavkat Kasymov

    Designing Teacher Education Programs for Human Rights
    by Joshua C. Francis

    Culture as the Cause of Conflict. A Case study in west Pokot District, Kenya
    by Daniel Nganga

    Outsourcing War and Peace
    A review of Laura A. Dickinson, Outsourcing War and Peace: Preserving Public Values in a World of Privatized Foreign Affairs. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2011).
    by Sam R. Snyder


    Volume 5, Number 3, 2011 
Pages 258-388
    Download individual Files:

    Papers from the International Institute on Peace Education 2010, Cartagena, Colombia

    Guest Editor: Anita Yudkin-Suliveres, Professor and UNESCO Chair for Peace Education at the University of Puerto Rico

    Youth as Actors in Peace and Human Rights Education
    By Marloes van Houten and Vera Santner

    Unidades Móviles como estrategia para prevenir la violencia y educar para la paz: la experiencia de Antioquia, Colombia
    By Juan Carlos Rivillas and Olga Espinosa Henao

    Participatory Artistic Quiltmaking for Peacebuilding and Peace Education: Reflections on a Workshop in the International Institute for Peace Education 2010 and on a Research Study
    By Roselynn Verwoord

    General Articles and Poems

    The Pen is Mightier than the Sword
    By Andrew Moss

    Homage to Gandhi
    By Andrew Moss

    Maria Montessori: Education for Peace
    By Barbara Thayer-Bacon

    Contextualizing Peace in Islamic Traditions: Challenging Cultural Hegemony
    By Candice Marie Nasir

    A Cultural Approach to Peace Education
    By Carl Templin and Jing Sun

    Consumption in Environmental Education: Developing curriculum that Addresses Cradle to Cradle Principles
    By Helen Kopnina

    Applying The New Ecological Paradigm Scale in the Case of Environmental Education: Qualitative Analysis of the Ecological Worldview of Dutch Children
    By Helen Kopnina


    Past Issues

    Volume 5, Number 2, 2011
    Pages 97-257

    Download individual Files:

    On Wrestling with Alienation and Producing More Progressive Mental Conceptions that Remake our World: Doing Democracy
    By Adam Renner, Nancye E. McCrary, and Doug Selwyn

    Fostering Social, Emotional, Ethical, Civic and Academic Learning (SEECAL) Through Constructive Controversy: What are the Implications for the Professional Development of High School Teachers?
    by Deborah Donahue-Keegan

    Perceptions of Citizenship in Preservice Elementary Social Studies Education
    by Hilary Harms Logan

    The Dialogic Classroom As Pedagogy: Teaching the Civic Mission of Schools
    by Andrea M. Hyde

    Emotion, Reflection, and Activism: Educating for Peace in and for Democracy
    by Eric C. Sheffield, Yolanda Medina, and Jeffrey Cornelius-White

    The Search for Balance: Understanding and Implementing Yoga, Peace, and Democratic Education
    by Joy L. Wiggins

    Teacher Development as Deliberative Democratic Practice: A Precursor to Educating for Democratic Citizenship
    by Diane R.Wood, Elizabeth K. DeMulder, and Stacia M. Stribling.

    Volume 5, Number 1, 2011
    Pages 1-96

    Download individual Files:

    Reflective Pedagogy, Cosmopolitanism, and Critical Peace Education for Political Efficacy: A Discussion of Betty A. Reardon’s Assessment of the Field by Betty A. Reardon and Dale T. Snauwaert

    Second Installment of the Special Issue: Skills, Values, and Beliefs for Today’s Democratic Citizenship Learning to Trust Our Teachers by Barbara J. Thayer-Bacon and Scott Ellison

    Democratic Citizenship, Critical Multiculturalism, and the Case of Muslims Since September 11 by Liz Jackson

    Habitat for Humanity and the Support of Civic Participation by Todd Junkins and Darcia Narvaez

    Society’s Response to Environmental Challenges: Citizenship and the Role of Knowledge by Cecilia Lundholm

    Volume 4, Number 1, 20
    Pages 1-126

    Special Issue: Skills, Values, and Beliefs for Today’s Democratic Citizenship: Psychological Competencies
    Florian Feucht (Special Issue Editor)

    Download individual Files:

    Florian Feucht: Information seeking, decision making, and action taking in social and political contexts An Introduction to Psychological Aspects of Democratic Citizenship

    Lori Olafson: “Good” Americans and “Bad” Americans: Personal Epistemology, Moral Reasoning, and Citizenship.

    Claudia Ruitenberg: Conflict, Affect and the Political: On Disagreement as Democratic Capacity.

    Michael Weinstock: Epistemic Understanding and Sound Reasoning Skills that Underlie Effective Democratic Engagement.

    Gregory Schraw, Lori Olafson, Michelle Vander Veldt, & Jennifer Ponder: Teachers’ Epistemological Stances and Citizenship Education.

    Lisa Bendixen(Discussant): Argumentation, Anger, and Action: Citizenship Education In and Out of the Classroom.

    Dale Snauwaert (Discussant): Democracy as Public Deliberation and the Psychology of Epistemological World Views and Moral Reasoning: A Philosophical Reflection.


    Volume 3, Number 1, 2009

    Pages 1-157

    Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Institute on Peace Education (IIPE) – “Human Rights Learning as Peace Education: 
Pursuing Democracy in a Time of Crisis”
    Dale T. Snauwaert (Editor)

    Download individual Files:

    Action Ideas in Educating for Human Rights and Towards a Culture of Peace in Puerto Rico
    By Anita Yudkin Suliveres and Anaida Pascual Morán

    On The Power(s) of Writing: What Writing Studies Can
    Offer to Peace and Human Rights Educators

    By Andrew Moss

    Human Rights, Popoki and Bare Life
    By Ronni Alexander

    International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Education:
    An Exploration of Differences and Complementarity

    By Josefine Scherling

    Spiritualiy: An Approach to Freedom and Democracy
    By Jalka

    Poetry and Peace: Explorations of Language and “Unlanguage” as
    Transformative Pedagogy

    By Mary Lee Morrison

    Broadening Horizons: Is There a Place for Peace Education in the American Legal System and More Specifically in Family Law?
    By MiaLisa McFarland

    Anti-discrimination Education in Japan: Buraku Sabetsu Simulation
    By Daisuke Nojima

    Peace Playground
    By Éva Blénesi

    Doing What We Teach
    By Jasmin Nario-Galace

    Peace Channel: A channel for human rights education and peace in Nagaland.
    By Fr. Rev. C.P. Anto

    Book Review Essays

    Recasting Classical and Contemporary Philosophies to Ground Peace
    Education: A Review Essay of James Page, Peace Education: Exploring Ethical and Philosophical Foundations (Charlotte, NC: Information Age Press, 2008)

    By David Ragland

    Reclaiming a Democratic Political Community: A Review of Paul Theobald, Education Now: How Rethinking America’s Past Can Change Its Future (Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2009).
    By Dale T. Snauwaert


    Volume 2, Number 2, 2008

    Pages 166-382

    Special Issue: Proceedings of the International Institute on Peace Education (IIPE) — “Critical Pedagogy: Educating for Justice and Peace.”
    Dale T. Snauwaert (Editor)

    Download individual Files:

    The International Institute on Peace Education:
    Twenty-six Years Modeling Critical, Participatory Peace Pedagogy

    By Tony Jenkins

    Persistence of Vision: Hegemony and Counter-hegemony in the Everyday
    By Robert E. Bahruth

    Hans-Peter Dürr’s Thought as a Source for Peace Work
    By Francesco Pistolato

    Unity-based Peace Education: A New Approach to Peace Education by Transforming World Views
    By Havva Kök

    Popoki, What Color is Peace? Exploring critical approaches to thinking, imagining and expressing peace with the cat, Popoki
    By Ronni Alexander

    Teaching About Peace Through Children’s Literature
    By Stan F. Steiner

    The UNESCO Schools Cooperation Network Health Education Programme
    By Nicoletta Mantziara

    Political Pedagogy Vs Coexistance Education: The Case of Israel\Palestine
    By Udi Adiv

    Painful Past in the Service of Israeli Jewish-Arab Dialogue:
    The Work of the Center for Humanistic Education at the Ghetto Fighters House in Israel

    By David Netzer

    Youth Initiatives in Conflict Zones: Focus Northern Ireland
    By Fran Russell Banks

    Peace Education in Marginalized Communities in Nigeria: The ‘Protect Our Future’ Project
    By Imoh Colins Edozie

    Thailand’s Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act B.E. 2551 (2008): A New Development in Human Rights Protection and Justice
    By Son Ninsri

    Weapons of Mass Destruction: Challenges Towards Nonproliferation in the Middle East
    By Nilsu Goren

    The Origins of Critical Pedagogy, or the Freirization of Paolo
    A poem by Rinah Sheleff


    Past Issue

    Volume 2, Number 1, 2008


    Special Issue on The Earth Charter
    Essays on Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine
    Book Review of The Encyclopedia of Peace Education

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    Special Issue on The Earth Charter

    Education for Sustainable Development based on the Earth Charter
    By Abelardo Brenes, Ph.D.


    This article maintains that the United Nations Decade for Education for Sustainable Development offers a critically needed opportunity for a worldwide educational and cultural movement that can harness the wonderful qualities of humans to meet our challenges and fulfil our evolutionary potential, which if achieved will manifest an integral way of living peacefully, in three fundamental dimensions: persons living peacefully and sustainably as members of the web and community of Cosmos, Earth and Life; with one another as equal members of the human community; and on the personal level, as a self-appreciative and self-directed personal evolutionary unfoldment. The Earth Charter is an international document that is now a core instrument of the United Nations Decade for Education for Sustainable Development. It provides a framework that contributes key elements for an educational philosophy and pedagogy adequate to fulfil these tasks.


    The Earth Charter: Peace Education and Values for a Shared World
    By Karen Huggins and Kevin Kester


    This paper explores the Earth Charter and the interconnectedness of all forms of life, the multiple values and dimensions through which peace is constructed, and the responsibility of today’s generations to preserve and nurture Earth’s living systems for future generations. Violence, apathy, and silent complicity are explored through reflection on the ethics that underscore peace, democracy, justice, and sustainability. One must learn to reconnect respect for non-human life to a re-humanization of the Other and care for succeeding generations. The Earth Charter outlines a framework of planetary ethics and actions for values in a world of understanding, collaboration, and environmental stewardship. During the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), this essay posits the Earth Charter operates as a normative document for integrating values of sustainability into education. The authors present a lesson plan in the final pages of the article as a model for implementing the Earth Charter into curriculum.


    The Earth Charter, a Radical Document: A Pedagogical Response.
    by Sean Blenkinsop and Chris Beeman


    In this paper we argue that because the Earth Charter is a radical document educative responses to it must be similarly radical. Building out of previous work, we offer practitioners six pedagogical tools which, as we argue below, align themselves to the ideas and spirit of the Charter and can act to assist existing educational practices become more ecological in orientation. The obvious premise in this discussion is that the change implied in the Earth Charter requires more than minor tinkering with education and that educators need immediately implementable tools that can begin the process of changing the larger “dominant pattern” (Earth Charter). In summary, this paper will investigate the alignment of the Earth Charter with a series of pedagogical tools thereby offering educators a concrete means to begin the process of radical change.


    The Cosmopolitan Ethics of the Earth Charter:
    A Framework for a Pedagogy of Peace
    By Dale T. Snauwaert


    The purpose of this paper is to philosophically explore the Earth Charter as a cosmopolitan ethical framework for a pedagogy of peace. The Earth Charter constitutes a powerful articulation of a framework of cosmopolitan ethical principles for a just, peaceful, and ecologically sustainable society. This paper articulates the cosmopolitan ethics of the Earth Charter and as well as exploring it’s potential as a foundation for a pedagogy of peace. The paper will focus on the definition of peace articulated in Principle 16f of the Charter: “Recognize that peace is the wholeness created by right relationships with oneself, other persons, other cultures, other life, Earth, and the larger whole of which all are a part.” This conception of peace serves as the organizing framework for the articulation of the cosmopolitan ethic and corresponding pedagogical framework. It is argued that the ethical principles of The Earth Charter provide a framework for a corresponding pedagogy of peace as right relationships.


    Essays on Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine

    A Pedagogy of Alternatives: A Peace Education Comment on Mark Webb’s “Letter to Naomi Klein”
    By Betty A. Reardon

    A Letter to Naomi Klein
    By Mark Porter Webb


    Book Review — The Encyclopedia of Peace Education (edited by Monisha Baja)
    By Hakim Williams


    Archive: Past Issues

    Volume 1 Number 2, 2007

    Download individual files:

    Exploring Our Perceptual Limitation by Lyudmila Bryzzheva


    It is easy to hurt others when they stand barely visible. The difficulty of seeing another person clearly is treated here as “perceptual limitation,” and it is partially1 responsible for poor perception of others. Through personal introspection, and anecdotal evidence from teaching practice and daily encounters the author explores this curable while recurrent condition and suggests a number of practical ways of minimizing it.


    The Preparation of Pre-Service Teachers for a Culture of Dignity and Peace by Melodie Wilson and Yvette Daniel


    This paper argues that since schools are considered spaces for critical transformation and teachers play a vital role in creating conditions where students can become loving, caring members of society, peace education should be made explicit in teacher education. It asserts that the teacher education culture in Ontario is keen and positioned for this endeavour to take place despite implicit and marginalized peace education content and practices. It continues by suggesting how a move to prepare teacher candidates with education for and about peace through the magnifying of current implicit peace practices may strengthen the overall momentum of producing just societies, thereby, building human dignity. Drawing from findings derived from a small-scale study, three implications for teacher education are given: teacher education must recognize the proclivity of teacher candidates for partnership pedagogy; create space for sharing experiences; and expose teacher candidates to peace education knowledge. Six recommendations are provided for increasing possibilities for peaceful and equitable social pathways. The overarching purpose is to stimulate further discussion and networking among Ministry of Education in Ontario and faculties of education by advocating how peace education aligns with the goals inherent in their own philosophies and those of the global peace agenda.


    Connecting Inner and Outer Peace: Buddhist Meditation Integrated with Peace Education by Edward J. Brantmeier


    This article describes major types of Buddhist meditation and elucidates the connections among Buddhist meditative practices and a missing dimension of contemporary peace education—the cultivation of inner peace. In laying the groundwork for integrating aspects of Buddhist meditation within peace education efforts, definitions of peace education are critiqued. The specific techniques of loving-kindness mediation and emptiness meditation are explored through the eyes of scholars of Buddhism and through the eyes of the author who has been a student of Buddhism for twelve years. Rooting insight into the radical interconnectedness of all life in Hindu and Buddhist religious traditions, the author reiterates the power of this insight in regards to transforming individual dispositions and actions for nonviolent social change. The secularization of Buddhist and other contemplative practices for use in U.S. public schools is problemitized given the history of the separation of church and state in the United States.



    Volume 1 Number 1, May, 2007
    Special Issue: What is the Relationship Between Knowledge and Peace?

    Download as individual files:

    Editorial Introduction by Fuad Al-Dwareesh

    Words Matter: Exposing the Camouflaged Violence of Hunting Rhetoric by Heidi A. Huse, Ph.D

    Nonviolence as a Way of Knowing in the Public School Classroom by Anya Jacobson

    A Book Review of “Avengers of the New World”
    by Monisha Bajaj, Ed.D

    A Book Review of “Ethical Visions of Education: Philosophies In Practice” by Dale Snauwaert, Ph.D

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